2007年9月25日 星期二

幌 月明 月夜 明月


めいげつ 1 【明月】


A reminder of our place in the vast universe

Imoaraizaka is the name of a slope in Tokyo's Roppongi district. According to "Toto Saijiki" (Chronicle of east capital), the simple name, which literally means "potato-washing slope," derives from the fact that during the Edo Period (1603-1867), a greengrocer in the neighborhood used to sell large quantities of satoimo, or a variety of potato, on Aug. 15 of the lunar calendar. Families cooked the potatoes and offered them to the full moon.
The night of the harvest moon, which is also called imo meigetsu, or potato moon, fell on Tuesday. If the weather is clear, the moon shows itself in the eastern sky just before sundown. The Japanese moon probe Kaguya is now on its way to the bright yellow celestial body. Twelve days since its launching, the probe is roughly halfway there.
It seems the growing trend to see the moon as a "future treasure trove of resources" has once again ignited interest around the world in sending probes there. Kaguya's mission is to look into the origin of the moon by observing its surface and environment and to explore its potential practical value. If all goes well, the project is likely to pave the way for a landing on the moon and manned exploration.
As the moon unveils itself, myths and superstitions are vanishing. The moon appears to be an expanse of desolate terrain and there are no signs that extraterrestrial creatures exist on the other side, which remains hidden from Earth. Kaguya is also expected to remove some of the thin veils that cover the moon.
In "Taketori Mongatari," a Japanese folk tale that goes back centuries to a time when people still believed in myths, Princess Kaguya, who was discovered as a baby inside a shining stalk of bamboo, tells her adoptive parents, "I do not belong to this Earth. I come from the capital of the moon," and goes back to her native moon in tears. The Earth, where she left behind the aging couple who adopted her, is contaminated. When we think about the endless wars and environmental pollution that plague the planet, we realize that the story is quite insightful. Kaguya is expected to send us moving images of rising Earth. What will they tell us?
Humans have tampered with the surface of the Earth for shortsighted convenience and pleasure. Land where humans made irreversible changes are called cities. The night of the harvest moon is a good time to look up at the pristine rugged surface of the moon and reflect on the Earth, in "heavy makeup," on which we stand. Roppongi Hills and its neighborhood, which form a nightless entertainment district on top of Imoaraizaka, provide an ideal location for viewing the moon.
--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 25(IHT/Asahi: September 26,2007)





※杜甫:盛唐の詩人。712年(先天元年)~770年(大暦五年)。字は子美。居処によって、少陵と号する。工部員外郎という官職から、工部と呼ぶ。晩唐 の杜牧に対して、老杜と呼ぶ。さらに後世、詩聖と称える。鞏県(現・河南省)の人。官に志すが容れられず、安禄山の乱やその後の諸乱に遭って、流浪の生涯 を送った。そのため、詩風は時期によって複雑な感情を込めた悲痛な社会描写のものになる。
※今夜州月:(妻は)今夜は、州の月を眺めていることだろう。 ・今夜:作者が長安にいる今、この時、州での夜は。 ・州: 〔ふしう;Fu1zhou1○○〕現・陝西省富県。長安の北方200キロメートルの地になる。(『中国歴史地図集』第五冊 隋・唐・五代十国時期(中国地 図出版社)京畿道・関内道40-41ページ)。 ・月:月は、古来遠隔地にいる家族を偲ぶ縁(よすが)となるべきもの。李白の『子夜呉歌』に「長安一片月,萬戸擣衣聲。秋風吹不盡,總是玉關情。何日平胡虜,良人罷遠征。」とある。
※閨中只獨看:(妻は)女性の居室で、ただひとりだけで見ていることだろう。 ・閨中:女性の居室。 ・只:〔し;zhi3●〕ただ…だけ。「只〔し; zhi3〕」は、すぐ後の「獨(看)」にかかる。蛇足になるが、日本語の「ただ」は「独り」にも「看る」にもかかっていくと解せられる。 ・獨:(つれが いなくて)ひとりで。ここでは、「女性=妻だけで」ということになる。後出「雙」と、意味の上では逆の関わりがある。 ・看:(妻が月を)看ている。見つ める。
※遙憐小兒女:(作者・杜甫は)遥か(離れた長安から)小さな子供達が(なぜ、母親(である作者の妻)が、夫のいる長安を思いやることを、まだ理解できないでいようことを)かわいそうに思う。 ・遙:〔やう;yao2○〕(作者・杜甫は、長安から)遥かに(離れた州を思いやり)。 ・憐:〔れん;lian2○〕(作者・杜甫は、子供達を)憐れむ。かわいそうに思う。気の毒に思う。いつくしむ。強く心を動かされる。 ・小:年が小さい。幼い。 ・兒女:(男女の)子供達。
※未解憶長安:(子供達は、母親である作者の妻が、夫のいる)長安を思いやることをまだ理解できないでいよう。 ・未解:(幼少のため)まだ理解できな い。 ・憶:〔おく;yi4●〕思う。思いやる。考える。 ・長安:ここでは作者である夫の杜甫の居る唐の帝都。国都。長安
※香霧雲鬟濕:夜霧は(妻の)豊かな髪も湿らせ。 ・香霧:〔かうむ;xiang1wu4○●〕秋の夜霧。 ・雲鬟:〔うんくゎんyun2huan2○○〕(美しい女性の)豊かな髪。豊かなわげ(束ねて輪にした髪)。 ・濕:(夜露、夜霧のために髪を)湿らせてしまう。
※清輝玉臂寒:月光は(妻の)玉のような腕を冷たく照らして(いよう)。 ・淸輝:月光。月の光。 ・玉臂:〔ぎょくひ;yu4bi4●●〕麗しい腕。美 しい女性の肌を謂う。 ・寒:寒々としている。月光は冷たいものでもある。月にある広寒宮は、寒いという。蘇軾詞『水調歌頭』「明月幾時有?把酒問靑天。 不知天上宮闕,今夕是何年。我欲乘風歸去,又恐瓊樓玉宇,高處不勝寒。起舞弄淸影,何似在人間!」や、杜牧の『秋夕』では「銀燭秋光冷畫屏,輕羅小扇捕流螢。天階夜色涼如水,臥看牽牛織女星。」 と詠われる。
※何時倚虚幌:(いったい)いつになったら、うすぎぬのカーテン(の窓辺)に寄り添って。 ・何時:いつ。 ・倚:〔い;yi3●〕よる。よりかかる。 ・虚幌:〔きょくゎう;xu1huang3○●〕うすぎぬのカーテン(の窓辺)。月光が透けて照らしてくる窓の覆い布。
※雙照涙痕乾:(妻と作者との夫婦)二人で並んで(月光に)照らされて、(生別の辛さのために)流した涙(をとどめて、その涙)の痕を乾かして(癒す時が 来ることだろうか)。 ・雙:(妻と作者とが)二人並んで。 ・照:(月光に)照らされる。 ・涙痕:〔るゐこんlei4hen2●○〕(別離の辛さのた めに流した)涙の痕。涙の流れたあと。 ・乾:〔かん;gan1○〕ここは、乾かすの意として使っている。癒す。本来かわく、の意。白居易の『琵琶行』「淒淒不似向前聲,滿座重聞皆掩泣。座中泣下誰最多,江州司馬青衫濕。」の部分と構成は同じ。「雙照涙痕乾」は「雙照乾涙痕」の意。杜甫はこのような動詞用例がしばしばあり、漢語語法の則って考える場合に悩まされるところである。『春望』の「國破山河在,城春草木深。感時花濺涙,恨別鳥驚心。烽火連三月,家書抵萬金。白頭掻更短,渾欲不勝簪。」もその例。

◎ 構成について


四 诸家英译《月夜》选录
One Moonlight Night 戴乃迭、杨宪益译
On this moonlight night in Fuzhou
She will be watching in her room alone;
Far away, my heart aches for our children,
Too young to remember Chang’an.
Her cloudy hair will be damp in the fragrant mist,
Her jade-white arms cold in the limpid light;
When shall we lean together by gauze curtains, Side by side beneath the moon, all our tears dried?

On a Moonlit Night Witter Bynner译
Far off in Fu-chou she is watching the moonlight, / Watching it alone from the window of her chamber -- / For our boy and girl, poor little babes, / Are too young to know where the Capital is. / Her cloudy hair is sweet with mist, / Her jade-white shoulder is cold in the moon. / …When shall we lie again, with no more tears, / Watching this bright light on our screen?
The Moon Night Amy Lowell & Florence Ayscough译
Tonight the moon at Fu Chou. / In the center of the Women’s Apartments / There is only one to look at it. / I am far away, but I love my little son, my daughter. / They cannot understand and think of Chang An. / The sweet-smelling mist makes the cloud head-dress damp, / The jade arm must be chilly / In this clear, glorious shining. / When shall I lean on the lonely screen? / When shall we both be shown upon, and the scars of tears be dry?

Moonlit Night Stephen Owen 译
The moon tonight in Fu-chou She watches alone from chamber, While faraway I think lovingly on daughters and sons, Who do not yet know how to remember Chang-an.
In scented fog, her cloudlike hairdo moist,
In its clear beams, her jade-white arms are cold.
When shall we lean in the empty window,
Moonlit together, its light drying traces of tears.

The Moonlit Night Rewi Alley译
This night at Fuchow there will be / Moonlight, and there she will be / Gazing into it, with the children / Already gone to sleep, not even in / Their dreams and innocence thinking / Of their father at Changan; / Her black hair must be wet with the dew / Of this autumn night, and her white / Jade arms, chilly with the cold; when, / Oh when, shall we be together again / Standing side by side at the window, / Looking at the moonlight with dried eyes?
The Moonlit Night 许渊冲译
Alone in your bed-chamber you would gaze tonight / At the full moon which over Fuzhou shines so bright. / Far off, I feel grieved to think of our children dear, / Too young to yearn for their father in Changan here. / Your fragrant cloud-like hair is wet with dew, it seems; / Your jade-white arms would feel the cold of clear moon-beams. / When we lean by the window screen side by side, / Watching the moon with tears wiped away and eyes dried?
A Moonlit Evening 张廷琛、魏博思译
Tonight when the moon is over Fuzhou / She will be watching all alone in her bedroom. / I pity my small children far away, / Who don’t even know what to miss of Changan. /Her cloudlike hair is dampened by the fragrant mists; / In radiant light, her jade-white arms grow chill. / When shall we side by side lean from window, / All traces of these tears in moonlight vanished?
Moonlight Night 李维建译,翁显良校
Tonight the moon in a distant sky / Arrests the eye of my loving wife alone, / For the poor little ones are to the feeling of loss yet unknown. / The mist is moist and fragrant on your cloud-like hair. / The light lucid and cool on your jade-white arms. / When shall we stand together by the soft curtains / And let it shine on us – us without a trace of tears?
The Moonlit Night 吴钧陶译
The moon tonight in Fuzhou’s sky-- / In the chamber you alone will see it floating by. / I’m sorry for our children dear, / Who know not to yearn for me in Chang-an here. / Your balmy curls are dewy dreams; / Your arms are smooth like jade and chill in lucid beams. / When we’ll lean by the gauzy veils? / We’ll shine in the light and tears will be the dry trails.